Online ISSN: 2187-2988 Print ISSN: 0911-1794
特定非営利活動法人日本小児循環器学会 Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery 34(4): 165-171 (2018)


胎児循環器断面像卵円孔,静脈管,肺循環路の出生変化Fetal and Neonatal Cardiovascular Cross-Sectional Morphology in the Rat: The Foramen Ovale, Ductus Venosus, Right Ventricle, and Pulmonary Artery

東京女子医科大学循環器小児科Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University ◇ Tokyo, Japan

発行日:2018年12月20日Published: December 20, 2018

本稿では胎児特有の循環路の出生時変化をラット凍結断面カラー写真の図譜で提示する.動脈管と先天性心疾患は紙面の都合で別の図譜にまとめた.ラット胎仔と新生仔を全身急速凍結法で固定し凍結ミクロトームで胸部を前額面,矢状面,横断面で切り,0.5 mm毎に断面カラー写真を連続撮影した.これにより胎児エコー図のモデルになる鮮明な天然色画像が得られた.心臓短軸断面で下大静脈右房開口部から卵円孔を経て左房への胎生期酸素化血の主要血流路が1断面に明示された.胸部矢状面でも臍静脈–静脈管–下大静脈–右房–卵円孔–左房の断面が描出された.新生仔の前額面では動脈管と卵円孔の閉鎖が明示された.胎仔で短い薄い卵円孔部心房中隔は生後2日で急速に進展肥厚して卵円孔を閉鎖した.胎生期心臓連続断面では太い動脈管,大きい胸腺,大きい右房と左房が明示された.いずれの断面図でも出生後に左右肺動脈末梢と肺静脈の急速な拡大,左右心室の拡大,右室壁菲薄化,肺の拡張,右心系のチアノーゼと左心系の動脈血化が明示された.

This review examines the natural-colored, cross-sectional morphology of the foramen ovale (FO), ductus venosus (DV), right ventricle (RV), and pulmonary artery (PA) in fetal and neonatal rats. The ductus arteriosus (DA) and congenital heart disease are reviewed separately. The in situ cross-sectional morphology of fetal and neonatal rat hearts was studied by rapid whole-body freezing, slicing on a freezing microtome, and serially photographing the cross-sections every 0.5 mm with a stereoscopic microscope (Wild M400). The serial frontal sections of the fetal thorax and upper abdomen showed the fetal oxygenated blood route including the umbilical vein, DV, inferior vena cava, posterior right atrium, FO, and left atrium. Neonatal frontal sections of the same area revealed closure of the DV, FO, and DA, in addition to rapid enlargement of the peripheral pulmonary vessels. Neonatal closure of the FO was associated with remarkable growth of the atrial septum flap. The fetal atrial septum was short and thin at the FO, and the flap tip only just reached the rim of the FO. Neonatally, this atrial septum grew rapidly in length and thickness within two days, closing the FO.

Key words: fetus; foramen ovale; ductus venosus; right ventricle; pulmonary artery

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